Joseph Stalin and Valentin Berezhkov (interpreter) meet Harry Hopkins in Teheran. Behind them stands Anthony Eden. At Stalin's left - Marshal Kliment Voroshilov.



The morning of December 2 was dull and grey. It had suddenly turned cold. Gusts of wind were swirling the yellow leaves round the park. At the entrance to the main building of the Soviet Embassy stood three military jeeps. American detectives were scurrying around, their jackets bulging with the automatic pistols hidden under their arms. Everything was ready for the departure of the President of the United States.

It has been agreed at first that the conference would have lasted till the end of December 2nd. But snow which had suddenly fallen in the mountains had caused a sharp worsening of the weather conditions and Roosevelt was forced to depart ahead of time. Late in the evening of December 1st the final declaration was hastily agreed upon. There was no time for typing clean copies of its text in Russian and English or for an official ceremony of its signing. The signatures to this document had to be collected rather in the fashion of an enquiry. Each of the main conference participants hastily put his visa. We were left with a fairly crumpled sheet of paper with the signatures done in pencil. The external appearance of the paper did not correspond to the solemn content of this document, soon to become world famous as the Teheran Declaration of the Three Powers. Here is what it said:

"We - the President of the United States, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, and the Premier of the Soviet Union, have met these four days past, in this, the capital of our ally, Iran, and have shaped and confirmed our common policy.

We express our determination that our nations shall work together in war and in the peace that will follow.

As to war - our military staffs have joined in our round table discussions, and we have concerted our plans for the destruction of the German forces. We have reached complete agreement as to the scope and timing of the operations which will be under-taken from the East, West and South.

The common understanding which we have here reached guarantees that victory will be ours.

And as to peace - we are sure that our concord will make it an enduring peace. We recognise fully the supreme responsibility resting upon us and all the United Nations, to make a peace which will command the good will of the overwhelming mass of the peoples of the world, and banish the scourge and terror of war for many generations.

With our diplomatic advisers we have surveyed the problems of the future. We shall seek the co-operation, and the active participation of all nations, large and small, whose peoples in heart and mind are dedicated, as are our own peoples, to the elimination of tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance. We will welcome them, as they may choose to come, into a world family of democratic nations.

No power on earth can prevent our destroying the German armies by land, their U-boats by sea, and their war planes from the air.

Our attack will be relentless and increasing.

Emerging from these friendly conferences we look with confidence to the day when all peoples of the world may live free lives, untouched by tyranny, and according to their varying desires and their own consciences.

We came here with hope and determination. We leave here, friends in fact, in spirit and in purpose.

Signed in Teheran,
on December 1, 1943
Roosevelt
Stalin
Churchill